Hollywood its life and times

At the start of the 20th century, a new city was beginning to grow on some flat land near the sea in southern California; its name was Los Angeles – the name of the old Spanish mission that had been there for many years.
At the same time, a new industry was just being born; the cinema. In America, they talked of “motion pictures”, but this soon became shortened to “movies”.
America’s movie industry began life in New York; but by 1910, movie-makers were moving to Los Angeles. In New York, everything was too expensive; workers, land, taxes. Worse than that, it was difficult to make movies in winter, because it was too cold.
By contrast, the Los Angeles region was full of advantages. In California, they could make films all through the year; and everything was cheaper. In particular, there was lots of land for sale.
The movie-makers found what they needed a few miles outside Los Angeles; and before long, large new studios were being built in an area called Hollywood, at the foot of some small dry hills.
Movies quickly became very popular, particularly after “talkies” first appeared in 1925. Nevertheless, movies were expensive to make, and film companies needed money – lots of it. For this reason, Hollywood rapidly became dominated by a small number of big companies such as MGM, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros. and Paramount.
Since then, the big companies have had their ups and downs, but most of them are still there. Some old names have disappeared, but some new ones have appeared, companies like Walt Disney and Steven Spielberg’s company Amblin.
Naturally, Hollywood has changed a lot in 80 years! Today the biggest studios belong to huge international firms. For instance, News Corporation, which now owns Fox, also owns newspapers on three continents (including the Times of London), and satellite TV networks in America, Europe and Asia.
It is only huge companies like Fox that can afford to make today’s very expensive films; and for Titanic – which was at the time the most expensive film ever – Fox had to get help from another big company, Paramount!
Once Hollywood could make films just for America; today it has to make them for the world. The suburb of Los Angeles has become the headquarters of a global dream-machine. Perhaps we dreamed differently in the past. Today, thanks in part to Hollywood, people everywhere have similar dreams.
We now live in the age of global culture. Hollywood did not invent this culture – but for better or for worse, it has become one of the most powerful elements in it. Like it or not, we all now live on planet Hollywood.

20-րդ դարի սկզբին հարավային Կալիֆոռնիայում ծովի մոտակայքում գտնվող ինչ-որ հարթ տեղում սկսում էր աճել նոր քաղաք անունը Լոս Անջելես էր ՝ իսպանական հին առաքելության անունը, որն այնտեղ եղել է երկար տարիներ:
Միևնույն ժամանակ, նոր արդյունաբերություն էր ծնվում: կինոֆիլմ. Ամերիկայում նրանք խոսում էին «շարժանկարների» մասին, բայց դա շուտով կրճատվեց ՝ դառնալով «կինոնկարներ»:
Ամերիկայի կինոարդյունաբերությունը կյանքը սկսեց Նյու Յորքում; բայց մինչև 1910 թվականը կինոարտադրողները տեղափոխվում էին Լոս Անջելես: Նյու Յորքում ամեն ինչ շատ թանկ էր; աշխատողներ, հող, հարկեր: Դրանից ավելի վատ դժվար էր ձմռանը կինոնկարներ նկարելը, քանի որ շատ ցուրտ էր: Ընդհակառակը, Լոս Անջելեսի շրջանը լի էր առավելություններով: Կալիֆոռնիայում նրանք կարող էին ամբողջ տարվա ընթացքում ֆիլմեր նկարահանել. և ամեն ինչ ավելի էժան էր: Մասնավորապես, վաճառքի համար շատ հող կար: Կինոնկարիչները Լոս Անջելեսից մի քանի մղոն հեռավորության վրա գտան այն, ինչ իրենց անհրաժեշտ էր. և շատ չանցած ՝ մեծ նոր ստուդիաներ էին կառուցվում Հոլիվուդ կոչվող տարածքում ՝ մի փոքրիկ չոր բլուրների ստորոտում: Ֆիլմերն արագորեն մեծ ժողովրդականություն են վայելում, մասնավորապես այն բանից հետո, երբ առաջին անգամ «թոքերը» հայտնվեցին 1925 թ.-ին: Այնուամենայնիվ, կինոնկարները թանկ էին նկարահանվում, և կինոընկերություններին փող էր հարկավորշատ: Այդ պատճառով Հոլիվուդում արագորեն տիրեցին մեծ թվով խոշոր ընկերություններ, ինչպիսիք են MGM, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros. և Paramount:
Այդ ժամանակից ի վեր խոշոր ընկերություններն ունեցել են իրենց անկումներն ու անկումները, բայց նրանց մեծ մասը դեռ այնտեղ է: Որոշ հին անուններ անհետացել են, բայց հայտնվել են նոր անուններ, ինչպիսիք են Walt Disney- ը և Steven Spielberg- ի Amblin ընկերությունը:
Բնականաբար, Հոլիվուդը 80 տարվա ընթացքում շատ բան փոխեց: Այսօր ամենամեծ ստուդիաները պատկանում են հսկայական միջազգային ընկերություններին: Օրինակ, News Corporation- ը, որին այժմ պատկանում է Fox- ը, ունի նաև թերթեր երեք մայրցամաքներում (ներառյալ Times of London) և արբանյակային հեռուստատեսային ցանցեր Ամերիկայում, Եվրոպայում և Ասիայում:
Միայն Fox- ի պես հսկայական ընկերություններն են, որ կարող են իրենց թույլ տալ նկարահանել այսօրվա շատ թանկ ֆիլմերը. իսկ Titanic- ի համար, որն այն ժամանակ ամենաթանկ կինոնկարն էր, Fox- ը ստիպված էր օգնություն ստանալ մեկ այլ մեծ ընկերությունից `Paramount- ից:
Hollywoodամանակին Հոլիվուդը կարող էր ֆիլմեր նկարահանել հենց Ամերիկայի համար; այսօր այն պետք է դրանք աշխարհի համար դարձնի: Լոս Անջելեսի արվարձանը դարձել է գլոբալ երազ-մեքենայի կենտրոնակայանը: Գուցե նախկինում մենք այլ կերպ էինք երազում: Այսօր, մասամբ Հոլիվուդի շնորհիվ, մարդիկ ամենուր նման երազներ են տեսնում:
Այժմ մենք ապրում ենք համաշխարհային մշակույթի դարաշրջանում: Հոլիվուդը չի հորինել այս մշակույթը, բայց լավ կամ վատ, այն դարձել է դրա ամենահզոր տարրերից մեկը: Ուզենք, թե ոչ, մենք բոլորս հիմա ապրում ենք Հոլիվուդ մոլորակում:

reported-speeh

Change the sentences to reported speech !

1. Mary said, “I will play a card game tomorrow.”

Mary informed me that she will play a card game tomorrow

.2. Sophie said, “I went to bed early last night.” 

Sophie said that she went to bed early last night

.3. The teacher said to Jenny, „You have to learn your grammar.” 

The teacher told Jenny that she had to learn grammar

.4. Jessica told the immigration officer,” This is my first trip to England.” 

Jessica told the immigration officer that it was her first trip to England.

.5. He told me, “You are the most beautiful girl I have ever seen.” 
He told me that you are the most beautiful girl that he have ever seen

.6. Marty said, “I’m going to visit my uncle next month.”

Marty said that he was going to visit his uncle next month.

.7. Lara said, “I get on with my parents really fine.”

Lara said that she get on with her parents really fine.

8. Gloria explained, “I can’t come to the party because I’m going away for the weekend.”

Gloria explained that she couldn’t be able to come to the party because she was going away for the weekend.

.

Mark said, “My friend found a new job in the music business.”

Mark said that his friend had found a new job in the music business.

Judy complained, “I have already written this essay four times.”

Judy complained that she had already written that essay four times.

11. Peter announced, “I will not give up until this factory is shut down.”

Peter announced that he would not give up until that factory was shut down.

12. Her boyfriend told her,” You have bought a wonderful dress.” Her boyfriend told her that she had bought a wonderful dress.

13. Paul said, “I don’t like my new flat.”

Paul said that he didn’t like his new flat.

14. My father told Ben, “I am sure I saw you here last week.

My father told Ben that he was sure he had seen him there the week before.

15. Betty said, „If I knew the answer, I would tell you.”

Betty said that if she had known the answer she would have told me/us.

Change to reported speech.

The boy asked the tour guide, “Where is the main tourist office? “ The boy asked the tour guide where the main tourist office was.

2. The police officer said, “Get out of the car !

The police officer ordered the boys to get out of the car .

3. The woman asked,” How long have you worked as a tour guide ?”

The woman wanted to know how long I had worked as a tour guide.

4. He said, “Come to me !

He told me to come to him .

5. I asked the waiter,” When is dinner served ?”

I asked the waiter when dinner was/would be served.

6. The old lady asked the policeman, “Is there a shopping centre nearby?” The old lady wanted to know if there was a shopping centre nearby.

7. Dad asked,” Did you find my glasses ?” Dad asked me if I had found his glasses.

8. He said to his son, “Don’t be afraid !” He told his son not to be afraid.

9. Dad advised us “, You should always wear a helmet when you ride a bike!” Dad advised us to wear a helmet when we rode a bike.

10.The biologist wondered, “What kind of marine animals are there in the park”? The biologist wondered what kind of marine animals there were in the park.

11.The journalist asked, “Have you published any interesting stories yet?”

The journalist wanted to know if I had published any interesting stories.

12.He said to her, “I may not be able to meet you at the airport.” He told her he might not be able to meet her at the airport.

13.She said, “Let’s go out !” She suggested going out.

14.The doctor told her, “Don’t get up until Sunday!” The doctor told her not to get up until Sunday.

15.The girl said, “Please don’t tell my parents “!

The girl begged the teacher not to tell her parents.

16.She asked, “Can I go tomorrow?”

She asked if she could go the next/following day.

     

The Internet in my life. The advantages and disadvantages of Media education

Last year I was using internet very often ,you know, homework, videos ,games and so on.Now this year I have no time to use Internet ,I don’t even have time to do homework, cause I go to painting classes, to pass the college entrance exam. I don’t want lower grades ,so I’m trying to do everything .Our school is media school, we’re working with internet and I think our school is the best school.Advantages of our media school is ,that it’s very easy to work with computers and we’re working with internet so we get more information about things and the disadvantage of school is, there are students that they are copying someone’s work and lying to the teacher that THEY did it and getting high grades or something like that.

Destination B1 p.33 Unit 8

A. If the word in bold in each sentence is correct ,put a tick ✅if it is wrong, right the correct word.

  1. We first visited China on 2006 ❌ -in
  2. my birthday is at the 2 of July ❌-on
  3. let’s meet on 5 o’clock , shall we?❌-at
  4. School starts again in September.✅
  5. there’s a party at Emily’s at Saturday❌-on
  6. what do you want to do on the morning ❌-in
  7. Let’s go and see grandma on Easter❌-at
  8. where do you usually go in Christmas Day?❌-on

B.Complete using on ,in or at.

  1. There are lots of people in the restaurant.
  2. The people who live at number 44 are away on holiday.
  3. You should go to the Louvre when you’re in Paris.
  4. Gorillas live in forests in Africa and eat fruit.
  5. What does that sign on the wall say?
  6. What did Athens say in his letter ?
  7. Have you heard of the strange statues on Easter Eastland?
  8. Do you really want to spend the whole day on the beach ?

C. Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.

  1. This photo was taken in winter.
  2. We’re re on a concert.
  3. She’s in the sea.
  4. It’s on page 62.
  5. it’s in the middle
  6. He’s on island
  7. It’s on the mountain.
  8. they are on the wedding.

D.Complete using the words in the box

  1. My aunt and uncle have decided to move in New Zealand.
  2. Do you want to go at the theater tomorrow.
  3. We stayed at a great hotel in Dubai.
  4. Wait at the end of the street and I’ll come and meet you.
  5.  You can come to my house for dinner, if you like.
  6.  Connor was walking on the corner shop when he realised he’d lost his wallet.
  7. We drove all night and finally arrived at Lisbon a 8 o’clock.
  8. Did you leave your book on the teacher’s desk, so she can see it?
  9. Look at those sheep in that field over there.
  10. It takes about six hours to fly to Asia from here.

F. Write one word in each gap.

Jetlag

When you travel to the other side of the world, jet lag is a real problem. You find yourself awake in the middle of the night and you feel like going to bed in the morning, just when everyone around you ius getting up.
Jetlag happens when you go to a country where the time is very different. For example, you might leave London at midday amd fly to Los Angeles. The flight takes about eleven hours, so when you arrive at Los Angeles airpot, your body thinks you’re there at 3 pm local time. So, at midnight Los Angeles time, your body (which still thinks it’s in London) says it’s 8 am. It takes a few days for your body clock to change. 

Harley Davidson (Motorcycle brand)

Harley Davidson is arguably the world’s most iconic motorcycle brand. The company was founded in a small shed by brothers Walter and Arthur Davidson, and William Harley during 1903.The century-old Harley Davidson story began in 1901, with a design for a small engine that could attach to a standard bicycle frame. William Harley refined this design over the years with his friends Arthur and William Davidson, to develop the first Harley Davidson bike in 1903. Unfortunately, the first model was rejected as being too weak to handle the roads of Milwaukee. However, that didn’t stop the team from investing in their first factory in 1906.

The three began work on a new and improved machine with an engine of 24.74 cubic inches (405 cc) with 9.75 in (24.8 cm) flywheels weighing 28 lb (13 kg). Its advanced loop-frame pattern was similar to the 1903 Milwaukee Merkel motorcycle designed by Joseph Merkel, later of Flying Merkel fame.

By 1920, Harley-Davidson was the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world, with 28,189 machines produced and dealers in 67 countries.In 1921, Otto Walker set a record on a Harley-Davidson as the first motorcycle to win a race at an average speed greater than 100 mph (160 km/h).The Great Depression began a few months after the introduction of their 45 cu in (740 cm3) model. Harley-Davidson’s sales fell from 21,000 in 1929 to 3,703 in 1933. Despite this, Harley-Davidson unveiled a new lineup for 1934, which included a flathead engine and Art Deco styling.

One of only two American cycle manufacturers to survive the Great Depression,[3][37] Harley-Davidson again produced large numbers of motorcycles for the US Army in World War II and resumed civilian production afterwards, producing a range of large V-twin motorcycles that were successful both on racetracks and for private buyers.As part of war reparations, Harley-Davidson acquired the design of a small German motorcycle, the DKW RT 125, which they adapted, manufactured, and sold from 1948 to 1966.

Modern Harley-branded motorcycles fall into one of seven model families: Touring, Softail, Dyna, Sportster, Vrod, Street and LiveWire. These model families are distinguished by the frame, engine, suspension, and other characteristics.

Harley-Davidson today is more than just a famous motorcycle manufacturer. This brand is among not only famous but legendary ones. 

Harley Davidson logo evolution

Harley-Davidson officially developed its first motorcycle in 1903. However, the first logo of Harley-Davidson appeared formally only in 1910. This year is considered to be the beginning of the history of Harley-Davidson logos. It received its name as Bar and Shield which is not less popular than the logo itself.

In 1929, the company developed a new V-shaped engine, which was so successful that it was used until 1972, passing only some stages of modernization. Celebrating its anniversary in 1953, Harley-Davidson decided to develop a new logo design, paying tribute to its engine which brought more success to the company. The “V” on the commemorative logo symbolizes the V-Twin engines. The version of this emblem of Harley-Davidson was present on the front fenders of the models of motorcycles which were produced in 1954. The logo was designed in a circle, and the letter V was going beyond its bounds. There were inscriptions ‘Harley-Davidson’, ‘50 years’ on it, in the upper part of the shield, and an inscription “American Made.”

The best known and most popular logo of Harley-Davidson today was introduced in 1965. The logo itself is standard, all the same Bar and Shield, but it has a more modern form and design. This logo is used today by the company on the manufactured motorcycles.


In honor of its centenary, which was celebrated by the Harley-Davidson company in 2003, it introduced a new design of its logo. All the same Bar and Shield, the significance of which could not fail to be mentioned, on the anniversary logo, and wings which were placed around them. The dates, namely, 1903 (the year of the foundation of the company) and 2003 (the year of the anniversary) were placed on the sides of the wings. There was a number, 100, below the Bar and Shield. This logo is also one of the most popular company logos. It was applied on the motorcycles and related goods of the company.


In 2008, the company ‘blew 105 candles’ on the cake in honor of the company’s anniversary, and in honor of its 105th anniversary, Harley-Davidson showed another anniversary logo that resembled the version of 2003. The Bar and Shield were placed in the middle of the circle, and it was made in black and orange colors, from the edges of which the curved wings went up, and went beyond the ring. There were an inscription ‘105 years’ between the wings of the Harley-Davidson logo, and the dates 1903 – 2008 were located along the contour of the circle at the bottom of the circular emblem. This version of the logo was available only on Dyna Fat Bob, Rocker and Rocker C motorcycles which were manufactured that year.

The Bar and Shield logo were used in a vast number of variations over many years. Sometimes this logo, made in the traditional combinations of black with orange, was seen on motorcycles.There are also versions of a simple, concise, steel logo design.

25.01

Eating out

1.The last time I went to a restaurant was about 2 months ago. My wife and I wanted to celebrate our wedding anniversary with a good meal so we went to an expensive Italian restaurant in downtown Lisbon. We both had pasta to start and for the main course my wife ordered a steak and I chose fish. For dessert we both ate chocolate cake topped with fresh cream. Delicious!

2. I went to a restaurant yesterday evening with my sister’s children. It wasn’t very expensive and the menu was very limited. We all had a burger and French fries, and drank cola. It wasn’t very good.

3. My boyfriend loves spicy food so this restaurant was perfect. The waiters were all really friendly and polite, and they played traditional sitar music which was very relaxing. The menu offered vegetarian dishes as well as meat dishes served with rice and a sauce – it depended on how hot you wanted it! I chose a mild beef curry but my boyfriend had a lamb ‘vindaloo’ – he also drank 2 liters of water!!

4. My class at the university went there last weekend. It’s a very popular type of restaurant in my country. It generally offers one type of food (a kind of bread with cheese and tomato sauce) which you then choose what ingredients to add on top of it. I asked for olives and mushrooms on mine and my classmates each had something different so we could taste a piece of each person’s meal.

  1. In which text did the person go there for a special occasion?  1
  2. In which text did the person visit an Indian restaurant?  3
  3. In which text did the person eat pizza? 2
  4. In which text did the person eat fast food? 2
  5. In which text did someone eat seafood? 1
  6. In which text did the person talk about the atmosphere of the restaurant? 3
  7. Which restaurant was cheap? 2
  8. In which text didn’t the person enjoy their meal? 2
  9. In which text did someone eat a very hot dish? 3
  10. In which text did the person have a vegetarian meal?4

Everybody loves a good wedding and I’m no exception. I’ve been to a load of them in my native Britain and I must say that I usually have a great time. I’ve also been to a few abroad, including the Caribbean and Spain, and most recently (last week in fact) to one in the mountains of Sardinia. No two weddings are ever the same and I really enjoyed this one for one or two of the differences from those in the UK.First, the two families spent at least three weeks before the big day preparing all the food, from wonderful home-made delicacies to simple traditional breads and pastas. In my experience, in the UK that onerous task is left to the caterers! In the week leading up to the wedding there is a dinner or some form of celebration every day – training for the stomach I guess. I know that we have the traditional Bachelor party and Bachelorette party, but this is more family orientated and certainly a little less rowdy. This particular ceremony was in a beautiful country church and afterwards the couple was driven to the reception in a wonderfully decorated classic Fiat 500, which was really similar to what happens in the UK, even down to the string of tin cans trailing behind the car!

The reception itself was also very similar until I realized that the seven tables in the hall each sat sixty guests (that’s four hundred and twenty, for those of you who didn’t study Math), an average number for Sardinia but would be considered a very large wedding where I’m from.

The wine flowed, as did the chatter – the famous Italian exuberance showing itself to the full. There were the five or six courses of wonderful food, screaming kids running wild, the ceremonial cutting of the cake by the bride and groom – but no speeches! Not one. In the UK it’s traditional for the father of the bride to propose a toast, followed by the groom and finishing up with that of the best man. His is meant to be he highlight of the lunch \ dinner, generally having a good laugh at the groom’s expense, but here the groom was spared that particular discomfort.

Instead there was a delightful custom which I’d never seen before, in which six or seven of the male guests pass round the hall banging trays, drums, pots, pans or basically anything that makes a horrendous noise, selling pieces of the groom’s tie which has been cut into tiny bits. The money raised is then given to the happy(!) couple to help them set up their new life together. Really nice. Finally the evening saw a lot of traditional dancing, a little disco dancing and some karaoke. Pretty much the part I like best, and again I wasn’t disappointed. Can’t wait for the next one.

1.a  2.b  3.b  4.a  5.b  6.a  7.b  8.b 9.b  10.b 

1. The writer generally likes weddings.
    True
    False

2. He didn’t particularly enjoy the Sardinian one.
    True
    False

3. The families helped the caterers to prepare the food.
    True
    False

4. There is usually a dinner the night before the wedding.
    True
    False

5. The groom meets the bride outside the church.
    True
    False

6. UK wedding receptions are often a lot smaller than Sardinian ones.
    True
    False

7. The writer found it hard to understand the speeches.
    True
    False

8. The staff of the reception hall cut the cake for the guests.
    True
    False

9. There is an auction to sell the groom’s tie.
    True
    False

10. The money from this helps to pay for the reception.
    True
    False

A man who understands a lot about computers came to visit us on January 22. He taught us how to protect our accounts, how to create a correct password, you do not need to protect the computer with a pin code, because people will guess it very easily.He explained to us what antivirus is and he talked about windows 7 8 10 and so on.We talked about internet and it’s very dangerous for children.You do not have to download a lot of different games because it may not be a game, but something completely different.We learned a lot

Create your website with WordPress.com
Get started